Dr. Robert Bucklin MD
Various surgeons and pathologists who have examined the Shroud agree that the wounds depicted match the biblical account of the crucifixion and are consistent with the weapons used by Roman soldiers. Dr Robert Bucklin, a Forensic Pathologist from Los Angeles County with over fifty years’ experience of conducting autopsies to establish cause of death, concluded that:
Chronologically, the whip like injuries to the back would have occurred earlier than other injuries which the pathologist has found. The individual would have been upright and with his arms above his head at the time the whipping occurred since no whip marks are found on the upper extremities. The position of the puncture defects in the wrist, coupled with the blood flow towards the elbows, and also associated with the punctures of the feet, permit the pathologist to conclude that the victim was in an upright position with his arms extended when the blood flow took place. A crucifixion type posture would be the most plausible explanation for these findings. Dr. Robert Bucklin MD
There are scourge marks visible on the front, back and legs of the Man of the Shroud that match the flagrum, a Roman whip which had three leather thongs, each having two lead or bone pellets designed to cut into the flesh. There is also a large bloodstain formed by a deep wound in the side which archaeologists confirm matches the shape of excavated examples of the leaf shaped point of the Roman lance.
The evidence clearly shows that the Man of the Shroud was scourged and crucified by Romans and since crucifixion was abolished by Emperor Constantine the Great in 337AD, the Shroud must have existed before this date.
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